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Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD)

What Is Peripheral Arterial Disease?  

Commonly referred to as poor circulation, Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD) is the restriction of blood flow in the arteries of the leg. When arteries become narrowed by plaque (the accumulation of cholesterol and other materials on the walls of the arteries), the oxygen-rich blood flowing through the arteries cannot reach the legs and feet.

The presence of PAD may be an indication of more widespread arterial disease in the body that can affect the brain, causing stroke, or the heart, causing a heart attack.

Signs & Symptoms

Most people have no symptoms during the early stages of PAD. Often, by the time symptoms are noticed, the arteries are already significantly blocked.

Common symptoms of PAD include:

  • Leg pain (cramping) that occurs while walking (intermittent claudication)
  • Leg pain (cramping) that occurs while lying down (rest pain)
  • Leg numbness or weakness
  • Cold legs or feet
  • Sores that will not heal on toes, feet or legs
  • A change in leg color
  • Loss of hair on the feet and legs
  • Changes in toenail color and thickness

If any of these symptoms are present, it is important to discuss them with a foot and ankle surgeon. Left untreated, PAD can lead to debilitating and limb-threatening consequences.

PAD Risk Factors

Because only half of those with PAD actually experience symptoms, it is important that people with known risk factors be screened or tested for PAD.

The risk factors include:

  • Being over age 50
  • Smoking (currently or previously)
  • Diabetes
  • High blood pressure
  • High cholesterol
  • Personal or family history of PAD, heart disease, heart attack or stroke
  • Sedentary lifestyle (infrequent or no exercise)

PAD Diagnosis

To diagnose PAD, the foot and ankle surgeon obtains a comprehensive medical history of the patient. The surgeon performs a lower extremity physical examination that includes evaluation of pulses, skin condition and foot deformities to determine the patient’s risk for PAD. If risk factors are present, the foot and ankle surgeon may order further tests.

Several noninvasive tests are available to assess PAD. The ankle-brachial index (ABI) is a simple test in which blood pressure is measured and compared at the arm and ankle levels. An abnormal ABI is a reliable indicator of underlying PAD and may prompt the foot and ankle surgeon to refer the patient to a vascular specialist for additional testing and treatment as necessary.

General Treatment of PAD

Treatment for PAD involves lifestyle changes, medication and, in some cases, surgery.

  • Lifestyle changes. These include smoking cessation, regular exercise and a heart-healthy diet.
  • Medications. Medicines may be used to improve blood flow, help prevent blood clots or control blood pressure, cholesterol and blood glucose levels.
  • Surgery. In some patients, small incision (endovascular) procedures or open (bypass) surgery of the leg are needed to improve blood flow.

PAD & Foot Problems

Simple foot deformities (hammertoes, bunions, bony prominences) or dermatologic conditions, such as ingrown or thickened fungal nails, often become more serious concerns when PAD is present. Because the legs and feet of someone with PAD do not have normal blood flow—and because blood is necessary for healing—seemingly small problems, such as cuts, blisters or sores, can result in serious complications.

Having both diabetes and PAD further increases the potential for foot complications. People living with diabetes often have neuropathy (nerve damage that can cause numbness in the feet), so they do not feel pain when foot problems occur. When neuropathy occurs in people with PAD, ulcers can develop over foot deformities and may never heal. For this reason, PAD and diabetes are common causes of foot or leg amputations in the United States.

Once detected, PAD may be corrected or at least improved. The foot and ankle surgeon can then correct the underlying foot deformity to prevent future problems should the circulation become seriously restricted again.

Avoiding PAD Complications

Getting regular foot exams—as well as seeking immediate help when you notice changes in the feet—can keep small problems from worsening. PAD requires ongoing attention.

To avoid complications, people with this disease should follow these precautions:

  • Wash your feet daily. Use warm (not hot) water and a mild soap. Dry your feet—including between the toes—gently and well.
  • Keep the skin soft. For dry skin, apply a thin coat of lotion that does not contain alcohol. Apply over the top and bottom of your feet but not between the toes.
  • Trim toenails straight across and file the edges. Keep edges rounded to avoid ingrown toenails, which can cause infections.
  • Always wear shoes and socks. To avoid cuts and abrasions, never go barefoot—even indoors.
  • Choose the right shoes and socks. When buying new shoes, have an expert make sure they fit well. At first, wear them for just a few hours daily to help prevent blisters and examine the feet afterward to check for areas of irritation. Wear seamless socks to avoid getting sores.
  • Check your feet every day. Check all over for sores, cuts, bruises, breaks in the skin, rashes, corns, calluses, blisters, red spots, swelling, ingrown toenails, toenail infections or pain.
  • Call your foot and ankle surgeon. If you develop any of the above problems, seek professional help immediately. Do not try to take care of cuts, sores or infections yourself.

Peripheral Arterial Disease – PAD

One of the best things about living in Arizona is the warm weather year round. Our sandals are always out and never hid in the back of the closet for winter. Perhaps this is not the case for you though. In fact, maybe you feel like you always have to wear socks because your feet are always cold. One contributing factor to consistently cold feet is peripheral arterial disease (PAD).

PAD is a decrease of blood flow to the feet due to narrowing or blocking of the arteries in your legs. This is essentially a fancy way to say “poor circulation” to your feet. PAD is caused from a number of factors. Some of these factors may include diabetes, obesity, smoking, hypertension (high blood pressure), and high cholesterol.

Symptoms of PAD

  • Foot pain at rest
  • Slow healing foot wounds
  • Pain in your legs with activity and relief with rest
  • Cold legs and feet
  • Loss of hair on legs and feet

To gather diagnostic criteria of PAD, your podiatrist may perform an ankle-brachial index. Depending on the results, your podiatrist can refer you to vascular specialists if necessary. If you are diagnosed with PAD there are ways to help reduce PAD symptoms. Reducing your blood pressure, cholesterol, weight, smoking cessation programs, increasing exercise and a healthy diet are all ways to help reduce the symptoms of PAD. Additionally, medications may be prescribed to help prevent blood clots. If PAD is severe, your vascular specialists may recommend that you get surgery to help restore lost blood flow to your lower extremity.

Your podiatrist may discoverer the symptoms and complications of PAD during his clinical exam. It is important see a doctor right way if PAD is a concern. If you notice any changes in your foot health please consider making an appointment with Dr. Jay C. Larson at Sole Foot and Ankle Specialists in Glendale, Arizona.


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